EFFECT OF SODIUM FLUORIDE ON THE LIVER OF ADULT MALE ALBINO RAT AND THE POSSIBLE PROTECTIVE ROLE OF VITAMIN C: LIGHT AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDY
Fayza Abdel Raouf, Medhat M. Morsy and Amany Elsayed Mohamed
Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University.
Background: The excessive fluoride ingestion over a prolonged period adversely influence many organs as the lung and heart, in addition to the well known effect of fluoride on bone and teeth. Aim of work: The aim of this work was to study the hepatotoxic effect of sodium fluoride and to evaluate the possible protective role of vitamin C, as an antioxidant, against it. Material and methods: This work was carried on forty adult male albino rats, weighing 200-250gm, to study the adverse effect of sodium fluoride on the liver and the protective role of vitamin C. The animals were divided into four equal groups. Group I (Control group): one half of the rats were not given any medication (normal control) and the other half of the rats were given a daily intraperitoneal injection of 1ml sterile distilled water (sham control). Group II: the animals of this group received vitamin C (40 mg/Kg) daily to evaluate its effect on the liver. Group III: the animals of this group received sodium fluoride (10 mg/Kg) daily for three successive weeks. Group IV: the animals of this group received sodium fluoride (10 mg /kg) and vitamin C (40 mg/Kg) daily for three successive weeks. Sodium fluoride was given by intraperitoneal injection and vitamin C was given by a gastric tube. The rats of all groups were sacrificed after three weeks from the beginning of the experiment. The liver was excised and processed for light and electron microscopic study as well as for morphometric study. Results: The present work demonstrated that the administration of sodium fluoride alone in group C produced variable degrees of histological changes in the liver of rats. These changes appeared as loss of hepatic architecture and massive hemorrhage. In addition congestion and dilatation of the hepatic sinusoids and central vein of hepatic lobules were found. Inflammatory cellular infiltration was seen with marked increase in the number of Kupffer cells. Excessive increase of collagen fibers led to the marked thickness of connective tissue around the central veins. Hepatocytes showed extensive vacuolation of their cytoplasm while their nuclei showed: irregular wall, karyorrhexis or pyknosis. The electron microscopic study showed small sized nucleus, decreased cytoplasmic organelles, rarified cytoplasm and some lipid droplet were seen in the cytoplasm. The rough endoplasmic reticulum was scattered and seen distorted and dilated with vacuolated mitochondria. The calculated statistical analysis of the morphometric study in this group showed a highly significant increase in the number of Kupffer cells and in mean area percent of the connective tissue and a highly significant decrease of glycogen in hepatocytes. The co-administration of vitamin C in group IV reduced the harmful effect of sodium fluoride on the liver.